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Local governments thought they could close libraries to save money. While in high school, I joined a club of students who worked in the library, learning and helping the librarian.

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Suddenly, marketing and public relations were essential to keep libraries open. As one of few experts in the field, people began calling on me to speak at conferences and to help them learn how to promote their value. My love and understanding of libraries, going back to childhood, motivated me to help fight for them. Eventually, I resigned from Computers in Libraries magazine so I could work on library marketing full time.

I even wrote a book, The Accidental Library Marketer, for people who did not intend to do marketing work but are now trying to learn how. I travel around the US and to other countries , giving workshops, speaking at conferences, and helping to write marketing plans. I love what I do, and I feel it is very important work, keeping libraries open. This is so very wrong.

In the information age, people need the expertise and tools of librarians more than ever. They think they can find everything on the internet. In my LAE business, I work at home, so social media is vital to me. It lets me reach people through my blog The M Word: Marketing Libraries at http: It lets me find stories from around the world, constantly update my knowledge, and work with colleagues overseas. To teach people in places I cannot reach, I can give webinars—speeches online for library groups everywhere.

And LinkedIn helps more people to discover me and my services http: My complete library story is here, on my website: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The E-mail Address es field is required. Please enter recipient e-mail address es. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format.

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Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? NSB stated that all tests would be done again before the trains were put back into service.

NSB stated that they would demand a discount from Adtranz. The contract between Adtranz and NSB states how often trains are to be maintained, and Adtranz holds a financial responsibility if the trains systematically need more maintenance than that. The same manufacturer had been used for the axles on both trains. In Sweden impurities in the steel, combined with undersized axles, were thought to be a cause, but replacements had caused the same issues.

The reason this was ignored, was that there was nothing that indicated that this part of the axle represented a weak point.

Immediately afterwards his deputy Randi Flesland resigned, after she had rejected the board's proposal for her to become acting CEO. They stated that they hoped further inquiries would find a way to have less frequent inspections.

Instead, Adtranz and NSB agreed to a new programme which would involve inspection every three weeks. The trains were put back into service on 13 July.

The trains were only allowed to operate at conventional speeds and had to go through a weekly inspection. In addition to problems with axles, there were also issues with the braking and air conditioning systems. The cause of the cracks was a rubber washer which had been installed on the first eight trains—rather than the conventional plastic cover—which was intended to protect the axles from ice and stones.

Adtranz had delivered thousands of trains with the conventional method without cracks, but the washers trapped water and this caused them to corrode and crack. The DNV inspector had "hardly believed his ears" when he heard about it. On 30 August, NSB gave Adtranz two weeks to solve the axle issues unless the contract was to be revoked. In mid-September, the press announced that on 8 May NSB had agreed that Class 71's axles could receive a steel quality substandard to European standard and recommendation from the International Union of Railways.

The reason was that the class would have a much higher weight than planned, and that this would cause the trains to operate more slowly and thus not be able to reach the airport in the desired 19 minutes. Class 73 inherited the same axle quality from the Class 71 order. NSB stated that this halved the cost of the inspections.

The first of the B-series trains were delivered for trial runs on 7 March Because part of the Bergen Line had frost heave , trains were forced to drive extra slowly, causing trains to get stuck. NSB stated that tests had shown that Class 73 was better able to do this than El 16 , which had previously been the main locomotive on the line, although Class 73 did not do as well as the modern El This was largely because of insufficient space for passengers to take skis with them.

NSB also stated that they were dissatisfied with that the A-series and B-series were not capable of working together. The B-series' lack of a manned dining car meant that they could not be used on intercity trains, while the A-series' smaller seating capacity meant it could not be used on regional trains.

NSB stated that the new class would offer better comfort and reduce the railway's problems from delays caused by icing. On 21 February , a Class 73 derailed after hitting an avalanche between Hallingskeid and Myrdal on the Bergen Line. The accident raised questions about the class's abilities to handle hard snow, such as in avalanches.

In particular, a DNV report from had shown that the train could act as a sled, lose contact with the tracks and slide on top of the snow. The National Rail Administration said that they took extra precautions for the Class 73 trains and that during snowfall they would run a snow-clearing unit ahead of all Class 73 runs.

NSB assured passengers that the trains were more capable than their reputation, and that they would continue to be used on the Bergen Line. If an alternative was needed, NSB stated that they would have to use El 18 locomotives in combination with B5 carriages. However, the carriages were at the time being used on regional rush-hour trains around Oslo, were in need of renovation and did not offer the facilities required by intercity travelers.

With locomotive-hauled trains, it was possible for the company to add or remove just a single carriage, but with multiple units, it was necessary to double the capacity if a single unit was insufficient. As the station is unmanned, there was no prior warning of the fire until the driver saw it from the cab just as the train entered the tunnel. More or less simultaneously, the train reached the point of the line were the fire had damaged the overhead supply. Because the train had no power, it was not possible to reverse out.

The passengers were then immediately evacuated. All personnel acted according to regulations and no-one was injured in the accident. According to the driver, had he not lost the power, he would have continued through the tunnel, as the fire was just at the beginning stage.

The train, which consisted of two Class 73 units, no.