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Abstract. In internet auctions the exchange between two anonymous actors corresponds to a one-shot prisoner’s-dilemma-like situation. In such a situation there is a high risk that both actors will cheat and that the market will collapse.

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by University of Michigan

Zusammenfassung. Robert Bartlett, Professor emeritus der Chirurgie der Universität von Michigan in Ann Arbor, USA, hat neben seiner wissenschaftlichen und klinischen Tätigkeit Werke der Weltliteratur (Charles Dickens: A Christmas Carol, Lewis Carroll: Alice in Wonderland) in Lehrstücke für die Fortbildung in der Intensivmedizin transformiert.

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William Phillimore Watts , ; Ward, James, Mary's Church Nottingham, England , St. Peter's Church Nottingham, England , St. Italian language, Italian language Source: Modern Spanish readings, embracing text, notes and an etymological vocabulary. Solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds; a compilation of quantitative solubility data from the periodical literature.

Willis Alonzo , The pronunciation of 10, proper names, giving famous geographical and biographical names, names of books, works of art, characters in fiction, foreign titles, etc. English language, Names Source: Clyde Elton , b. A dictionary of English and Welsh surnames, with special American instances.

Charles Wareing Bardsley," ed. Names, Personal, Names, Personal Source: The Norman people and their existing descendants in the British dominions and the United States of America.. Normans, Names, Personal Source: The Royal Academy of Arts; a complete dictionary of contributors and their work from its foundation in to World War, Source: Embracing a Revised and Enlarged Some 7, buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion's shock wave, and authorities scrambled to help repair the structures in sub-freezing temperatures.

The Chelyabinsk meteor is also the only meteor confirmed to have resulted in a large number of injuries. No deaths were reported. Local residents witnessed extremely bright burning objects in the sky in Chelyabinsk , Kurgan , Sverdlovsk , Tyumen , and Orenburg Oblasts , the Republic of Bashkortostan , and in neighbouring regions in Kazakhstan, [11] [12] [13] when the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia.

The event began at According to eyewitnesses, the bolide appeared brighter than the sun, [12] as was later confirmed by NASA. The visible phenomenon due to the passage of an asteroid or meteoroid through the atmosphere is called a meteor. During the Chelyabinsk meteoroid's traversal, there was a bright object trailing smoke, then an air burst explosion that caused a powerful blast wave. The latter was the only cause of the damage to thousands of buildings in Chelyabinsk and its neighbouring towns.

The fragments then entered dark flight without the emission of light and created a strewn field of numerous meteorites on the snow-covered ground officially named Chelyabinsk meteorites. The last time a similar phenomenon was observed in the Chelyabinsk region was the Kunashak meteor shower of , after which scientists recovered about 20 meteorites weighing over kg in total. At that time it was travelling at about The United States space agency NASA estimated the diameter of the bolide at about 17—20 m and has revised the mass several times from an initial 7, tonnes 7, long tons; 8, short tons , [14] until reaching a final estimate of 10, tonnes [14] [39] [40] [41] [42] 11, short tons, greater than the total weight of the Eiffel Tower.

The Russian Geographical Society said the passing of the meteor over Chelyabinsk caused three blasts of different energy. The first explosion was the most powerful, and was preceded by a bright flash, which lasted about five seconds. The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk and Yuzhnouralsk.

Due to the height of the air burst, the atmosphere absorbed most of the explosion's energy. Multiple arrivals involving waves that travelled twice around the globe have been identified. The meteor explosion produced the largest infrasounds ever to be recorded by the CTBTO infrasound monitoring system, which began recording in , [57] [58] [59] so great that they reverberated around the world several times, taking over a day to dissipate.

Brown also states that the double smoke plume formation, as seen in photographs, is believed to have coincided near the primary airburst section of the dust trail as also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball , and it likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the center of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud. The blast created by the meteor's air burst produced extensive ground damage over an irregular elliptical area around a hundred kilometres wide, and a few tens of kilometres long, [71] with the secondary effects of the blast being the main cause of the considerable number of injuries.

Russian authorities stated that 1, people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast within the first few days. A year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment. A fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, was hailed as a hero after saving 44 children from imploding window glass cuts.

Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver and then to leave a building. Karbysheva, who remained standing, was seriously lacerated when the blast arrived and window glass severed a tendon in one of her arms and left thigh ; none of her students, whom she ordered to hide under their desks, suffered cuts.

The majority of the patients were suffering from cuts. After the air blast, car alarms went off and mobile phone networks were overloaded with calls. Classes for all Chelyabinsk schools were cancelled, mainly due to broken windows. By 5 March the number of damaged buildings was tallied at over 7,, which included some 6, apartment blocks, medical facilities, schools and universities, cultural organizations, and 43 sport facilities, of which only about one and a half percent had not yet been repaired.

Chelyabinsk authorities said that broken windows of apartment homes, but not the glazing of enclosed balconies, would be replaced at the state's expense. The arena was closed for inspection, affecting various scheduled events, and possibly the postseason of the KHL. The Chelyabinsk meteor struck without warning.

Dmitry Medvedev , the Prime Minister of Russia , confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future. Colonel General Nikolay Bogdanov, commander of the Central Military District , created task forces that were directed to the probable impact areas to search for fragments of the asteroid and to monitor the situation.

On the day of the impact, Bloomberg News reported that the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs had suggested the investigation of creating an "Action Team on Near-Earth Objects ", a proposed global asteroid warning network system, in face of DA 14 's approach.

It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres across is about once in every 60 years. Centuries before, the Ch'ing-yang event , of an unknown magnitude, apparently caused 10, deaths. It was probably a fragmented asteroid. The meteorite has veins of black material which had experienced high-pressure shock and were once partly melted, due to a previous collision.

The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock making up the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL-chondrite asteroid. The Chelyabinsk asteroid probably entered an orbital resonance with Jupiter a common way for material to be ejected from the asteroid belt which increased its orbital eccentricity until its perihelion was reduced enough for it to be able to collide with the Earth.

In the aftermath of the air burst of the body, a large number of small meteorites fell on areas west of Chelyabinsk, generally at terminal velocity , about the speed of a piece of gravel dropped from a skyscraper. Speculators were active in the informal market that emerged for meteorite fragments.

It was not immediately clear whether this was the result of an impact ; scientists from the Ural Federal University collected 53 samples from around the hole the same day it was discovered.

The early specimens recovered were all under 1 centimetre 0. The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

Petrographic changes during the fall allowed estimates that the body was heated between 65 and degrees during its atmospheric entry. In June , Russian scientists reported that further investigation by magnetic imaging below the location of the ice hole in Lake Chebarkul had identified a centimetre 2.

Following an operation lasting a number of weeks, it was raised from the bottom of the Chebarkul lake on 16 October Initially, it tipped and broke the scales used to weigh it, splitting into three pieces.

In November , a video from a security camera was released showing the impact of the fragment at the Chebarkul lake. From the measured time difference between the shadow generating meteor to the moment of impact, scientists calculated that this meteorite hit the ice at about metres per second, 64 percent of the speed of sound.

The Russian government put out a brief statement within an hour of the event.