WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION


The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by nations on 15 April , replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in

This development may add some drag to world trade growth as China imports fewer capital goods, but the process has so far been gradual and not very disruptive to global trade. Retrieved 25 October Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling as well as animal and plant health imported pests and diseases. World commercial services trade recorded a strong expansion in following two years of weak-to-negative growth.

Details on trade developments in 2017

International World Trade Organisation (WTO) The EU has been at the forefront of discussions on a possible multilateral agreement on competition in the WTO.

Meanwhile, Japan overtook the United Kingdom as the world's 4th largest merchandise importer while Canada fell from 9th to 12th place in import rankings.

China remained the largest exporter and the United States remained the largest importer regardless of whether the European Union was treated as 28 separate countries or as a single trader, excluding intra-EU trade. World commercial services trade recorded a strong expansion in following two years of weak-to-negative growth.

This is illustrated by Chart 7, which shows growth in the dollar value of commercial services exports since by major services categories. Detailed breakdowns of commercial services trade by region and country are shown in Appendix Tables 2, 5 and 6. There were no changes in rank among the top 5 exporters of commercial services when EU member countries are counted separately, whereas the United Kingdom rose to 5th place among importers from 6th previously.

There were no changes in rank on either the export or import side with the EU treated as a single entity and intra-EU trade excluded. The United Arab Emirates placed much higher in the global export rankings 12th in , excluding intra-EU trade than in previous press releases, but this was due to data revisions rather than increased exports. UAE imports were also considerably larger. As a result, ranks of countries in commercial services trade are not fully comparable to previous years.

Some leading and coincident indicators of merchandise trade continued to point in a generally positive direction in the first quarter of while others have taken a negative turn. An index of container port throughput was close to its highest level ever recorded in February Chart 8 , suggesting strong trade growth.

However, a measure of global export orders derived from purchasing managers' indices dipped in March, falling to A value above 50 still indicates expansion, but the recent weakening could be attributed to rising anti-trade rhetoric Chart 9. Balanced against these broadly positive signs is a rising tide of anti-trade sentiment and the increased willingness of governments to employ restrictive trade measures.

Recent measures have been applied to widely traded goods supplied by a large number of countries, with counter actions promised if these go into effect. An escalating cycle of retaliation may yet be avoided if negotiations manage to diffuse tensions, but this is not guaranteed.

As always, the WTO stands ready to help members reach mutually beneficial outcomes. Values greater than 50 indicate expansion while values less than 50 denote contraction. Another major risk is an unanticipated hike in inflation in one or more countries, which could cause monetary authorities to raise interest rates precipitously and cause economic growth to slow, with negative consequences for trade.

The United States Federal Reserve is already in the process of raising interest rates closer to historical norms while the European Central Bank is moving closer to phasing out its own stimulus measures. Economic forecasters generally expect monetary authorities to manage these challenges successfully, but with less room to manoeuvre some financial volatility could come to the fore if conditions change. The increased level of policy uncertainty is illustrated by Chart 10, which shows an index based on the frequency of phrases linked to economic uncertainty in press accounts.

Assuming current forecasts for GDP growth come to pass, the WTO expects world merchandise trade volumes to increase by 4. Developed countries should also see fairly strong growth on both the export side 3. In global trade growth is projected to moderate to 4. However, economic activity would also be expected to take a hit from escalating trade restrictions, which could result in more negative scenarios being realized.

As a result, its trade in services statistics were revised downward starting in on both the credit and the debit side. Quarterly data not available. Preliminary estimates based on quarterly statistics. Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. More data available at https: Download this press release pdf format, 22 pages, KB. Problems viewing this page?

If so, please contact webmaster wto. Faster trade expansion is being driven by stronger economic growth across regions, led by increased investment and fiscal expansion. Trade growth in is likely to fall within a range from 3. Trade growth should moderate to 4. In a retaliatory move, India has hiked customs duty on several goods, including Bengal gram, lentils and artemia, imported from the US.

The import duty hike would be effective from August 4, the Finance ministry said in a notification. Issues pertaining to duty hike by America on steel and aluminium, review of export benefits to certain domestic products and visa tightening norms will come up at the meeting between senior officials of India and the US here next week.

A bipartisan group of about a dozen influential lawmakers today said the recent Indian decision to increase tariff on apples from 50 per cent to 80 per cent would hurt growers of the fruit in America. Macron's office said in a statement on Friday that the two presidents spoke over the phone after Trump's administration announced the decision on Thursday to impose 25 per cent tariffs on steel and 10 per cent tariffs on aluminum.

The leaders of Japan and Vietnam agreed Thursday to bolster cooperation in maritime safety and defense, and expressed shared concerns over China's growing activity in the South China Sea. Sun, Jan 06, Updated US seen blocking G20 progress on trade, climate. Donald Trump renews China tariff threats ahead of meeting with Xi. WTO changes must support developing countries: President Kovind arrives in Australia on maiden state visit. Activists irked by RCEP talks over pharma patents.

China engaging in behaviour that is troubling Japan, India and others: Push for more Indo-China business ties. Senator urges President Trump to declare China a currency manipulator. WTO not equipped to deal with China and its industrial policies: The WTO is also a centre of economic research and analysis: The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes.

That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games. Exceptions to the MFN principle also allow for preferential treatment of developing countries , regional free trade areas and customs unions. The General Council has the following subsidiary bodies which oversee committees in different areas:.

The Service Council has three subsidiary bodies: There are working parties on the following: There are working groups on the following: Trade, debt and finance; and Trade and technology transfer.

The WTO describes itself as "a rules-based, member-driven organization—all decisions are made by the member governments, and the rules are the outcome of negotiations among members". Richard Harold Steinberg argues that although the WTO's consensus governance model provides law-based initial bargaining, trading rounds close through power-based bargaining favouring Europe and the U.

The WTO's dispute-settlement system "is the result of the evolution of rules, procedures and practices developed over almost half a century under the GATT ".

The priority is to settle disputes, preferably through a mutually agreed solution, and provision has been made for the process to be conducted in an efficient and timely manner so that "If a case is adjudicated, it should normally take no more than one year for a panel ruling and no more than 16 months if the case is appealed If the complainant deems the case urgent, consideration of the case should take even less time.

According to a study in the Journal of Politics , states are less likely and slower to enforce WTO violations when the violations affect states in a diffuse manner. However, the dispute settlement system cannot be used to resolve trade disputes that arise from political disagreements. When Qatar requested the establishment of a dispute panel concerning measures imposed by the UAE, other GCC countries and the US were quick to dismiss its request as a political matter, stating that national security issues were political and not appropriate for the WTO dispute system.

The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and current trade regime. The shortest accession negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic , while the longest was that of Russia, which, having first applied to join GATT in , was approved for membership in December and became a WTO member on 22 August The Working Party on the Accession of Kazakhstan was established in and was approved for membership in After a final meeting of the Working Party in October , Vanuatu requested more time to consider its accession terms.

In , it indicated its interest to resume and conclude its WTO accession. The re-convened Working Party completed its mandate on 2 May A study argues that "political ties rather than issue-area functional gains determine who joins" and shows "how geopolitical alignment shapes the demand and supply sides of membership".

Instead, democracy and foreign policy similarity encourage states to join. A country wishing to accede to the WTO submits an application to the General Council, and has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements.

After all necessary background information has been acquired, the working party focuses on issues of discrepancy between the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic trade policies and laws.

The working party determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may consider transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules. The final phase of accession involves bilateral negotiations between the applicant nation and other working party members regarding the concessions and commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services.

The new member's commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, even though they are negotiated bilaterally. When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party sends to the general council or ministerial conference an accession package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession a draft membership treaty , and lists "schedules" of the member-to-be's commitments.

Once the general council or ministerial conference approves of the terms of accession, the applicant's parliament must ratify the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member.

The WTO has members and 23 observer governments. WTO members do not have to be fully independent states; they need only be a customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of their external commercial relations. Thus Hong Kong has been a member since as "Hong Kong, China" since predating the People's Republic of China, which joined in after 15 years of negotiations.

As of , WTO member states represented A number of international intergovernmental organizations have also been granted observer status to WTO bodies.

The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession. The Agreement on Agriculture came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector , in the same way as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT provided such a system for merchandise trade.

The agreement entered into force in January Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling as well as animal and plant health imported pests and diseases.

The object ensures that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade". Chiefly, it adopts the "transaction value" approach. The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general were published in January