Fresnillo, Glencore, Goldcorp & Co: Die größten Silberproduzenten
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Der Silberpreis hat sich im Laufe dieses Jahres kräftig erholt. Seither aber gab es eine kräftige Gegenbewegung. Wir sehen das aktuelle Niveau als guten Boden, um Einstiegskäufe zu wagen.
Die globale Produktion zeigt sich derzeit stabil. Hierfür ist allein Hindistan Zinc verantwortlich, bei deren Produktion fällt Silber als Beiprodukt an. Der Silber-Output sank dort um fast ein Viertel auf 12,2 Mio. Zudem verzeichneten auch China und Australien eine spürbar geringere Produktion. In diesen Ländern wird mit einem anhaltenden Rückgang gerechnet. Das wichtigste Förderland bleibt Mexiko. Damit liegt man deutlich vor Peru und China.
Bis will man die Silberproduktion auf 65 Mio. Weltweit fördert der kanadische Konzern rund 40 Mio. Auf der Nachfrageseite macht die Schmuckindustrie wieder auf sich aufmerksam. Eine rückläufige Nachfrage wurde dagegen aus China registriert. Hitler approved the construction program on 1 March The Graf Zeppelin class's hull was divided into 19 watertight compartments, the standard division for all capital ships in the Kriegsmarine.
Horizontal armor protection against aerial bombs and plunging shellfire started with the flight deck, which acted as the main strength deck. Along the peripheries, it formed a 45 degree slope where it joined the lower portion of the waterline belt armor. The Graf Zeppelins' original length-to-beam ratio was 9.
However, in May , the accumulating top-weight of recent design changes required the addition of deep bulges to either side of Graf Zeppelin ' s hull, decreasing that ratio to 8.
Graf Zeppelin ' s straight-stemmed prow was rebuilt in early with the addition of a more sharply angled "Atlantic prow", intended to improve overall seakeeping.
The Graf Zeppelin class's power plant was to consist of 16 La Mont high-pressure boilers, similar to those used in the Admiral Hipper -class heavy cruisers. However, wartime experience on ships with similar power plants showed such estimates were highly inaccurate, and actual operational ranges tended to be much lower.
Two Voith-Schneider cycloidal propeller-rudders were to be installed in the forward bow of the ship along the center-line. When not in use, they were to be retracted into their vertical shafts and protected by water-tight covers.
It had a slight round down right aft and overhung the main superstructure but not the stern; being supported by steel girders. At the bow, the carriers were to have an open forecastle and the leading edge of her flight deck was uneven mainly due to the blunt ends of her catapult tracks , but it did not appear likely that would have caused any undue air turbulence.
Careful wind-tunnel studies using models confirmed this, but they also revealed that their long low island structure would generate a vortex over the flight deck in these tests when the ship yawed to port. This was considered to be an acceptable hazard when conducting air operations. The Graf Zeppelin class's upper and lower hangars were long and narrow with unarmored sides and ends.
Workshops, stores and crew quarters were located outboard of the hangars, a design feature similar to that of British carriers. The Graf Zeppelin class had three electrically operated elevators positioned along the flight-deck's center-line: Two Deutsche Werke compressed air-driven telescoping catapults were installed at the forward end of the flight deck for power-assisted launches. A dual set of rails led back from the catapults to the forward and midship elevators.
In the hangars, aircraft were to be hoisted by crane - a method also proposed for the Essex-class carriers of the United States Navy, but rejected as too time-consuming - onto collapsible launch trolleys. When the catapults were triggered, a burst of compressed air would propel moveable slideways within the catapult track wells forward. As each plane lifted off, its launch trolley would reach the end of the slideway but remain locked in place until the tow attachment cables were released.
Once the slideways were retracted back into the catapult track wells and the tow cables unhooked, the launch trollies would be manually pushed forward onto recovery platforms, lowered to the forecastle on "B" deck, then rolled back into the upper hangar for re-use via a secondary set of rails. Eighteen aircraft could have theoretically been launched at a rate of one every 30 seconds before exhausting the catapult air reservoirs. It would then have taken 50 minutes to recharge the reservoirs.
The two large cylinders holding the compressed air were housed in insulated compartments located between the two catapult tracks, below flight deck level but above the main armored deck.
This positioning afforded them only light protection from potential battle damage. It was intended from the outset that all of the Graf Zeppelins ' aircraft would normally launch via catapult. Rolling take-offs would be performed only in an emergency or if the catapults were inoperable due to battle damage or mechanical failure. Whether this practice would have been strictly adhered to or later modified, based on actual air trials and combat experience is open to question, especially given the limited capacity of the air reservoirs and the long recharging times necessary between launches.
They could also have launched and landed aircraft simultaneously. To facilitate rapid catapult launches and eliminate the necessity of time-consuming engine warm-ups, [Note 1] up to eight aircraft were to be kept in readiness aboard the German carriers on their hangar decks by the use of steam pre-heaters.
In addition, engine oil was to be kept warmed in separate holding tanks, then added via hand-pumps to the aircraft engines shortly before launch.
Once the aircraft were raised to flight deck level via the elevators, aircraft oil temperature could be maintained, if need be, through the use of electric pre-heaters plugged into power points on the flight deck. Otherwise, the aircraft could have been immediately catapult-launched as their engines would already have been at or near normal operating temperature.
Four arrester wires were positioned at the after end of the flight deck with two more emergency wires located afore and abaft of the amidships elevator.
Original drawings show four additional wires fore and aft of the forward lift, possibly intended to allow recovery of aircraft over the bows, but these may have been deleted from the ship's final configuration.
When not in use they could be lowered flush with the deck to allow aircraft to pass over them. The Graf Zeppelins ' starboard-side island housed the command and navigating bridges and charthouse. It also served as a platform for three searchlights, four domed stabilized fire-control directors and a large vertical funnel.
To compensate for the weight of the island, the carrier's flight deck and hangars were offset 0. The Graf Zeppelins were to be armed with separate high and low angle guns for AA and anti-ship defense at a time when most other major navies were switching to dual-purpose AA weapons and relying on escort ships to protect their carriers from surface threats. These were mounted, two each, at the four corners of the carriers' upper hangar deck, positions that raised the possibility the guns would be washed out in heavy seas, especially those in the forward casemates.
Chief Engineer Hadeler had originally planned for only eight such weapons on the carriers, four on each side in single mountings. However, the Naval Armaments Office misinterpreted his proposal to save space by pairing them and instead doubled the number of guns to 16, resulting in a need for increased ammunition stowage and more electrically operated hoists to service them. But the structural modifications needed to accommodate such a change were judged too difficult and time-consuming, requiring major changes to the ship's design, and the matter was shelved.
Primary AA protection came from 12 Potential blast damage to planes sited on the flight deck when these guns fired to port was an unavoidable risk and would have limited any flight activity during an engagement.
These guns were later changed to Flakvierling mountings. In , with Graf Zeppelin ' s launch scheduled for the end of the following year, the Luftwaffe's experimental test facility at Travemünde Erprobungsstelle See or E-Stelle See on the Baltic coast - one of the four such Erprobungstelle facilities of the Third Reich, with the headquarters at Rechlin - began a lengthy program of testing prototype carrier aircraft.
This included performing simulated carrier landings and take-offs and training future carrier pilots. The runway was painted with a contoured outline of Graf Zeppelin ' s flight deck and simulated deck landings were then conducted over an arresting cable strung width-wise across the airstrip.
Later, a stronger braking winch was supplied by Atlas-Werke of Bremen and this allowed heavier aircraft, such as the Fieseler Fi and Junkers Ju 87, to be tested.
Test planes were first hoisted by crane onto collapsible launch carriages in the same manner as intended on Graf Zeppelin.
The catapult test program began in April and, by early May, 36 launches had been conducted, all carefully documented and filmed for later study: Further testing followed, and by June Luftwaffe officials were fully satisfied with the catapult system's performance. The expected role of the Graf Zeppelin class was that of a seagoing scouting platform and her initial planned air group reflected that emphasis: When work on Graf Zeppelin ceased, the T-2s were deployed to Norway. At the end of , when interest in completing Graf Zeppelin revived, the surviving Bf T-2s were withdrawn from front-line service in order to again prepare them for possible carrier duty.
Seven T-2s were rebuilt to T-1 standards and handed over to the Kriegsmarine on 19 May By December, a total of 48 Bf T-2s had been converted back into T-1s. By February , all work on Graf Zeppelin had ceased and the aircraft were returned to Luftwaffe service in April.
When work on Graf Zeppelin was suspended in May , the 12 completed Fi s were organized into Erprobungsstaffel for the purpose of conducting further operational trials.
By the time work on the carrier resumed two years later in May , the Fi was no longer considered adequate for its intended role and the Technische Amt decided to replace it with a modified torpedo-carrying version of the Junkers Ju 87D. Of the Ju 87C-1 ordered, only a few saw completion, suspension of work on Graf Zeppelin in May resulting in cancellation of the entire order. Existing aircraft and those airframes in process were eventually converted back into Ju 87B-2s.
Work on developing a torpedo-carrying version of the Ju 87D for anti-shipping sorties in the Mediterranean had already commenced in early when the possibility again arose that Graf Zeppelin might be completed. But when all further work on Graf Zeppelin was halted for good in February , the entire order was canceled. None of the Ju 87Ds converted to carry a torpedo were used operationally. By May , when work was ordered resumed on Graf Zeppelin , the older Bf T carrier-borne fighter was considered obsolete.